Newsletter (1st May’13 – 15th May’13)

Fortnightly Newsletter

(1st May '13 - 15th May`13)

Compiled by: Azeem Ayub



In the Name of Allah,
the Most Gracious,
the Ever Merciful



The Ailment of Self-Righteousness


Humility is the key to scholarship and self-righteousness is perhaps the greatest impediment to it. In the study of religion, contemporary Muslims scholars have generally adopted the latter approach. It is the opinion of this writer that this approach has contributed significantly in promoting sectarianism and dogmatism.


A student admitted to a conventional Madrasah is indoctrinated with the notion of self-righteousness throughout the years he studies there. From the very first day, he is labeled as an orthodox follower of a particular sect. His destiny seems to be carved out beforehand as one of a devout denouncer of every other sect and an ardent acclaimer of his own. He is made to believe that only his brand of beliefs is in direct conformity with the Qur’ān and Sunnah. An inference attributed to a highly revered scholar of his sect stands supreme till the Day of Judgement. That it can be challenged by cannot be dared thought of.


The time has come to realize how wrong this attitude is. As Muslims, we must understand that self-righteousness is actually a declaration of the infallibility of  human intellect. Obviously, no human being can make such a claim. So if Muslim scholars want to become men of scholarship and erudition, they must abandon this approach. They should instead reflect, deliberate and then humbly submit their inferences to criticism. They must always think that the religious opinions they present are not the last word.


No scholar can ever be totally sure that he has stumbled upon the final truth in matters that require interpretation of the scripture. So he must be keep his eyes and ears open and his intellect tuned to change for the better.



Author: Shehzad Saleem


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In this Issue

* The Ailment of

Read & Reflect
* The Events of the
    day  of Judgement


 Debate & Discuss
Discussion Forum:
    Understanding the

 return to the top ^

Express & Explain
* General Discussion

 return to the top ^ 


Pause & Ponder
*  Fighting



*  Successful

Read and Reflect


Inheritance of an Orphaned Grandchild



Javed Ahmad Ghamidi

(Tr. by Shehzad Saleem)


The Qur’ān has not explicitly mentioned the share of a grandfather in the legacy of his grandchild nor that of a grandchild in the legacy of his grandfather. However, since the words أولاد (awlād) and آبا (ābā) can refer both on the basis of meaning and usage to grandparents and grandchildren there has remained a consensus among Muslim jurists that if none of the direct parents or direct children are present, then the shares which have been fixed for them will be given to indirect parents and indirect children respectively.1 However, one situation which can arise is that one or more children die in the lifetime of a parent and one or more children is alive after his death. The ijtihād of the jurists in this case is that the offspring of the deceased children will not be given any inheritance from the grandfather and in the presence of their paternal uncles they will be deprived of it except if the grandfather has made a will in their favour. In current times, some scholars are of the opinion that this ijtihād of the jurists seems incorrect. A grandson is like a son and hence in the event of a son’s death, he should get the share that his father would have got had he been alive. In my opinion, this opinion is correct. Consequently, in the following paragraphs I will try to answer the objections raised on this view by Mawlānā Sayyid Abū al-A‘lā Mawdūdī a revered and respected scholar of Islam. Following are these objections:2


1. As per the Qur’ān, whoever gets a share in the inheritance of a deceased is entitled to it because he is near in kin (aqrab) to him and not because he is a substitute of some other kin. Thus the suggestion of granting a share to the grandchild from the inheritance of his grandfather introduces the very wrong notion of substitution in the Islamic law of inheritance of which there is no evidence found in the Qur’ān. Moreover, after accepting the principle of substitution this inheritance is confined to the children of the children and no sound reasoning can be presented in favour of this either.


2. As per the Qur’ān, only those who are alive have a share in the legacy of a person at the time of his death. Contrary to this, this view also grants a share to people who have died in the lifetime of that person.


3. The Qur’ān has explicitly allocated the shares of some relatives and no addition or reduction can be made to them. However, if this view is adopted, then an addition is made in some shares fixed by the Qur’ān and a reduction is made in some others.


The answer to the first question is that the grandson is not being given a share as a substitute for his father in the capacity of an heir; it is being given to him because after the death of his father he has become aqrab to his grandfather the way his father was. Thus he is a substitute for his father in this regard. When his father was alive, his father was aqrab of his own father with regard to being his offspring. After his death, his son has become aqrab to his father and on this basis has become entitled to inheritance. During the lifetime of the father, a person is like a son to his grandfather and after his father’s death also he is like a son to his grandfather. The only difference which death has caused is that in becoming theaqrab of his grandfather he has become a substitute for his father. This substitution does not refer to the one understood by Sayyid Mawdūdī; it is a substitution in being aqrab to the deceased which according to his own opinion is the basis of the Islamic law of inheritance. If a deceased does not have children all the way down, then it is in this very capacity that brothers and sisters become substitutes of children, and as per the Qur’ān in the same manner receive their share in exactly the same proportion as prescribed for the children. For this substitution, the last verse of Sūrah Nisā’ is an explicit source. The reason to deny it to the children of children is that after the death of the wife or the husband no heir can become a wife or husband to any extent so that he or she be regarded as the substitute of the deceased with regard to being their aqrab.


The answer to the second objection is that the share being given to the grandson is not the share of the father given to the son as his heir; the share is being given to him because it is, in fact, his own share because after the death of the father he is his substitute to his grandfather and anaqrab to the grandfather in the same capacity. This does not at all in any way affect the Qur’ānic principle that inheritance only belongs to the heirs who are alive at the time of the death of the person whose inheritance is to be distributed. The suggestion of giving a share to an orphaned grandchild is to make someone an heir who is alive at the time of death of the person whose inheritance is to be distributed.

The third objection has arisen because of the misunderstanding that this methodology of distribution of inheritance among the grandsons shall also be employed when no one from the children is present. The Mawlānā has explained this objection with an example. He writes: 


… Suppose that a person had only two sons and both died during his lifetime; one of them had four sons and the other only one. As per the Qur’ān, all these grandchildren are equal with regard to being sons to their grandfather and hence each of them should receive an equal share from the inheritance of their grandfather. However, on the basis of this principle of substitution half of his inheritance will be received by one grandson and the remaining half shall be divided equally between the other four grandsons.3


The answer to this objection is that this may not be the case. In this scenario, the same method of distribution can be adopted: each grandson be given equal share. The Qur’ān itself guides us to this. It has adopted one method in distributing the share to an heir in the presence of other heirs and another in their absence. Thus in the presence of children, the parents shall receive one sixth each; if the deceased does not have children but has brothers and sisters, then the shares of the brothers and sisters shall remain the same; however, if the parents are the only heirs of the deceased, then the mother’s share shall be one-third and the father’s share shall be two-thirds. Same is the case with kalālah relatives. If someone among them is made an heir and he or she has one brother or one sister, then they shall be given a sixth of his or her share; however, if he or she has more than one brother or sister, then they shall be given a third of his or her share. Thus it is not necessary that in case of grandsons, one of the two options be insisted upon. This is purely an issue in which ijtihād can be exercised. In this regard, whatever the method adopted, it should be in accordance with the principles prescribed by the Qur’ān, and in all cases be based on justice.


(Translated by Dr Shehzad Saleem)


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1. The word “direct parents” and “direct children”  refers to the parents and children while the word “indirect parents” and “indirect children” refers to grandparents and grandchildren. (Translator)

2. Sayyid Abū al-A‘lā Mawdūdī, Tafhīmāt, 9th ed., vol 3 (Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1983), 173-190.

3. Mawdūdī, Tafhīmāt,vol 3, 182.


  Debate and Discuss


Course Forums: Understanding the Sunnah


Topic: Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (sws)



If people of pre-arabia can corrupt the Sunnah of Prophet Abraham (as mentioned in module 1 course notes), what guarantee do we have that Muslims will not or have not corrupted the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad?



I do not know if I am knowledgeable enough to help you answering this question but I think to avoid from being led astray from the straight path it is very important to check the sources of to where we get our knowledge from. And also look at the chain of people who narrated the hadith or sunnah of nabi (saw)


Insha'Allah if what I said is correct it is from Allah t'ala and whatever is wrong it is from me



I am afraid that does not answer my Question Mariam. May be question was not so clear. It is clear from the course notes that people of pre-Islamic era had corrupted the Sunnah of Prophet Abraham. Prophet Muhammad only revived the Sunnah of Abraham, after some addition and deletion. Who is going to revive the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad if Muslims distort it, and what guarantee do we have that Muslims have not or will not corrupt it just like pagans. I was hoping Mr. Tariq Hashmi will answer my questions on course forums. No body seems interested in course forums either any more.


Tariq Hashmi (Moderator)

Sorry for not responding to the questions earlier. I did not notice that there were posts which need my attention. Please excuse me.

You ask what guarantees the preservation of the Sunan now when they were liable to change in the times preceding the Prophet (sws).

The Sunan of Abraham no doubt were religious practice and were disseminated among a groups of his followers but in the Arabian side the ion of Abraham was not accepted by and disseminated among an entire generation which could carry it uncorrupted. They were not that widely spread. Neither was it made possible that the basic beliefs of the people are secure. Therefore we see that with the introduction of polytheism the Sunan of the Abraham the most manifest of which were hajj being spoiled. Their nature (being practices which everyone adheres to) kept them alive but the lack of the pure faith and true knowledge regarding them was the reason impurities could creep in.

The Sunnah is same as the Qur’an both as regards it transmission down from the Prophet (sws) and the degree of care taken to preserve them by the Prophet (sws) and the Prophet (Abraham). The religion of the Prophet Abraham was not to serve as the last guidance to the people on earth. therefore it was not guaranteed security. On the contrary the religion of the Prophet (sws) was destined to serve as the last guidance till the Last Day it was revealed, recorded and disseminated in the most perfect way so that it is still unadulterated and clear to all.



We can never be guaranteed that the books or collection of ahadeeth has been tampered with, or that someone tells lies about what Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) have said or done. Allah has promised to protect the Holy Qur'an and no the ahadeeth. BUT since Allah protects the Qur'an we are helped. When 'Aisha (raa) mother of the believers, was asked about the character of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) she answered that he was a walking (living) Qur'an. So in view of this, if any act of Sunna that you read about goes against the Qur'an, then leave it. About the ahadeeth, that is a whole since in itself. I suggest you stick to the Seven sahihs and take the course on haddeth at this website and you will see what I mean about the "science" part.




Express and Explain:


General Discussion Forum


Topic: Namaz



I would like to now if we can read small namaz, meaning can we shorten it. If we can, wot can we read. Also when reading kiza namaz can we read kiza namaz with any namaz.


Also do we have to wake up for sehri, when we are keeping a fast? I would really appreciate it if my questions are answered.



You can shorten your namaz by praying fard and leaving out the Sunnah if you have to but if your outside a radius of 40miles**different opinions about distance and time but its more about how convenient it is for you really** from your home then u can do qasar **in a journey**


and you can pray kaza salah if u have missed it but try not 2 make it a habit


oh and you don’t have to wake up 4 serhi...sumtyms i can’t be bothered either but the prophet (saw) encouraged sahur and sed thers a blessing in it- medically and spiritually advised

hope this helps


Jhangeer Hanif (Moderator)

If any Salah has been missed for some reason, it must be offered and we should also seek forgiveness from Allah.


It is better that we say the missed prayer first and then go on to offer the other Salah.



yeah thats what I do, if I have been a daft nut and prayed Asr after the Maghrib Azaan, I pray Asr before Maghrib. This isn't happening to regularly Alhamdullillah.



What are the explanations of the followings?


1. Salahtal wusta [Middle Salah (Namaz)]- Al-Quran.


2. La Salahta illa be hazooril qalab [No Salah (Namaz) without present heart]- Hadith



So what happens if a Muslim intentionally does not do salat (namaz)? Does he/she get punished for it?


Ibrahim (Moderator)

Here are the answers of your Questions according to my little knowledge:


1. Surely the literal meaning of "Salaat ul Wusta" is Middle Prayer (Namaz) & "Asar" Prayer is The "Salaat ul Wusta" as it Comes in the MIDDLE of the Day & Work.


2. the Hadith "La Salahta illa be hazooril qalab [No Salah (Namaz) without present heart]" means that One should try to be attentive TOWARDS Allah in one's prayer as Much as Possible.




Dear Brother OOSMAN

Please note that the prayer is the most important thing for a Muslim not only for his success in the Life after death but also in this worldly life and he becomes a complete citizen of a Muslim state if he's coming to Mosque Regularly for his Prayers.

So it means that it's hard to think of a Muslim who is not offering his prayers "intentionally". Surely he'll get Punishment NOT only on the Last Day BUT even in this world By an Islamic State.

But remember that the off and on intentional negligence in the prayer is a totally different matter. Normally in these type of cases a Muslim will Offer his prayer as soon as he'll come out of this state of negligence and you know such a prayer may not even be considered as a "Qaza" prayer by our Most Merciful God.


I hope this Helps




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  Pause and Ponder

Fighting Hopelessness
Posted on: Friday, April 16, 2010 - Hits: 2


My problem is that I feel hopeless all the time not just because I think too much but because whatever happens to me is against my will. It is okay if it happens once or twice but it seems to happen chronically. My second question is that I am not good in communication also. I want to become assertive but I think my fate doesn’t help me with this as well.


As long as the wheel of life is destined to move on, problems and difficulties will keep popping up. The Almighty has sent us in this world in order to test and try us. The nature of this trial of life varies from person to person. Some people are placed in difficult times and others in prosperous ones, according to the just and wise scheme of the Almighty. The underlying objective, however, remains to test them which one of them is good in deeds. So, the befitting attitude is to submit to the scheme of Allah because it will lead us to the Garden of Paradise. The benefit, we shall reap, in this world because of this submission, is to be contented and satisfied. Try as hard as we may, we cannot undo whatever Allah has willed for us. However, if we learn to see our happiness in the failures that He has willed for us it will not only earn us entitlement to Paradise but also give us a contented heart.


The second question must also be understood in the perspective of the explanation delineated above. Allah has created people of varying skills and capabilities. Some people are awarded the ability of articulation as good as to become immortal orators and some are deprived of the very ability of speaking. While the former group of people is supposed to prostrate themselves in gratitude, the latter group is required to prostrate themselves in submission to God’s will. I think it is rather difficult to be a good Muslim when you are engulfed by God-gifted talents and skills. Our misery and deprivation remind us of Allah and help us to be closest to Him. So the deficiency that you have related is not to be feared. Moses (sws), the great Prophet of Allah, had problems with communicating the message of Allah to the people. What he did is that he prayed very sincerely to the Lord to compensate for the lack of it:


O Lord, relieve my mind, and ease my task for me and loose the knot from my tongue that they may understand my saying. (20:25-8) 



Jhangeer Hanif







Successful Participants


ID Course Country Grade
10628 Belief in God USA B
11878 Belief in God UK C
11892 Belief in God USA A+
11987 Belief in God USA C+
10628 Belief in the Hereafter USA C
11892 Belief in the Hereafter USA D+
11892 Belief in the Prophets USA A
11892 Family and Marriage: Related Issues USA B+
9307 Family and Marriage: Related Issues USA A+
11787 Family and Marriage: Related Issues India C+
11987 Introduction to the Hadith USA D+
11923 Islamic Customs and Etiquette Egypt E+
11987 Islamic Customs and Etiquette USA E+
11923 Norms of Gender Interaction Egypt E+
11318 The Prayer Italy A+
11987 The Prayer USA D+
11987 The Religion of Islam USA D+
11892 Understanding Islamic Dietary Laws USA B
11987 Understanding Islamic Dietary Laws USA B+



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